Rough Roads in Macedonia

Posted in: 2014
By Tom M. Ballinger
Feb 18, 2014 - 8:51:09 PM

Plainer Words since 1968
January 17, 2014
Part 1
The rough roads in Macedonia is not a reference to the Macedonian highways. The roads the Lord directed the Apostle Paul to travel led to some difficult circumstances in the cities along the way. The Apostle to the Gentiles was not discouraged by having a few little pebbles in his shoes. The mob of “lewd fellows of a baser sort” who were out to do Paul in didn’t bother him. Paul knew he was the Messenger of the Lord Jesus Christ. Mob violence was nothing more to him than a few bits of pea gravel in his shoes. The Macedonian Road from Philippi to Thessalonica was traveled without incident by Paul and Silas. But, wait!
After receiving 39 stripes with a cat-of-nine-tails, he and Silas were thrown into prison (Acts 16:22-23).  After spending a night in prison in Philippi, the prison doors were divinely opened by the Lord, using an earthquake to unlock the prison.  Paul and Silas, then, hit the road again on their way, this time, to Thessalonica.
The City of Thessalonica was founded in 315 B.C. and located in the Northern portion of Greece. During Paul’s day, Thessalonica was in what was known, then, as Macedonia.  It was a Free-City. As Greece’s second largest city, it had the largest Jewish population in Greece.  Paul and Silas visited Thessalonica. The visit was recorded in Acts 17. After three Sabbath Days of reasoning in the Synagogue of the Jews, many Jews and a multitude of “devout Greeks” believed. As it was, many times, the greater Paul’s success, the greater his opposition. Here, he met with an uproar made by unbelieving Jews, causing more agitation and leading to a riot. This disturbance even caused confusion among those who attended the “Church of God in Thessalonica.” The “Church” met in the Synagogue of the Jews.
“1 Now when they [Paul and Silas] had passed through Amphipolis and Apollonia, they came to Thessalonica, where was a synagogue of the Jews:  2 And Paul, as his manner was, went in unto them, and three sabbath days reasoned with them out of the scriptures, 3 Opening and alleging, that Christ must needs have suffered, and risen again from the dead; and that this Jesus, whom I preach unto you, is Christ. 4 And some of them believed, and consorted with Paul and Silas; and of the devout Greeks a great multitude, and of the chief women not a few. 5 But the Jews which believed not, moved with envy, took unto them certain lewd fellows of the baser sort, and gathered a company, and set all the city on an uproar, and assaulted the house of Jason, and sought to bring them out to the people. 6 And when they found them not, they drew Jason and certain brethren unto the rulers of the city, crying, These that have turned the world upside down are come hither also; 7 Whom Jason hath received: and these all do contrary to the decrees of Caesar, saying that there is another king, one Jesus. 8 And they troubled the people and the rulers of the city, when they heard these things.  9 And when they had taken security of Jason, and of the other, they let them go. 10 And the brethren immediately sent away Paul and Silas by night unto Berea: who coming thither went into the synagogue of the Jews.”
The Apostle Paul penned 2 Thessalonians not long after he had written 1 Thessalonians. It is believed that the First Epistle to Thessalonica was written in late 52 A.D. and followed, shortly afterwards, with the Second Epistle in early 53 A.D. The context of both epistles is set forth in 1 Thessalonians 5:2 as, “For yourselves know perfectly that the Day of the Lord so cometh as a thief in the night.” Here, we realize that the Day of the Lord is associated with the Coming (the Parousia) of the Lord Jesus Christ.
The Second Epistle has a mistranslation in 2 Thessalonians 2:2 where the “Day of Christ” is said to be “at hand” which should have been translated the “Day of the Lord is at hand.” This becomes obvious as a thorough study is made. In order to understand the two epistles, one needs to understand the atmosphere in Thessalonica. It explains some of the believers’ confusion and misunderstanding.
After Paul and Silas arrived in Berea, the envious Jews from Thessalonica learned Paul was preaching in Berea, so they and, more than likely, their “Rent-a-mob” traveled to Berea to stir-up trouble. The distance the unsavory “Rent-a-mob” and the Jewish instigators traveled from Thessalonica to Berea was about 62 miles. A mob is a lawless crowd, a rabble. The uncouth crowd, led by the jealous Jews, came to the attention of              some of the Brethren in Berea who immediately intervened and took Paul and conducted him, by sea, to Athens (Acts 17:13-15).
 “But when the Jews of Thessalonica had knowledge that the word of God was preached of Paul at Berea, they [and the unsavory crowd] came thither also, and stirred up the people. And then immediately the brethren sent away Paul to go as it were to the sea: but Silas and Timotheus abode there still. And they that conducted Paul brought him unto Athens: and receiving a commandment unto Silas and Timotheus for to come to him with all speed, they departed.”
The strife in Thessalonica explains some of the misunderstanding in Thessalonica. We can see why there was some confusion among the saved in Thessalonica.
The most distinctive feature of 2 Thessalonians is found in 2:1-12.
“Now we beseech you, brethren, by the Coming [Parousia] of our Lord Jesus Christ, and by our gathering together unto Him, That ye be not soon shaken in mind, or be troubled, neither by spirit, nor by word, nor by letter as from us, as that the Day of Christ [Lord] is at hand” (2 Thess. 2:1-2).
“The Coming [Parousia] of our Lord Jesus Christ” harkens back to 1 Thessalonians 4:15. This gives rise to the thought that Paul might have believed, at this time, they were experiencing life in the Pre-Millennial Kingdom of God, to wit, the Day of Christ. 1 & 2 Thessalonians were, most likely, the first two epistles he wrote, and he did not, at this time, have the complete chronology of “things to come.” The events which were taking place after Pentecost and, especially, after his Call in Acts 9 fit into the Prophetic Word. Mark 16 must be included in this Prophetic Chronology of the Word.
“And He [Jesus]  said unto them [the Eleven Apostles], Go ye into all the world, and preach the gospel to every creature. He that believeth and is baptized shall be saved; but he that believeth not shall be damned.  And these signs shall follow them that believe; In My Name shall they cast out devils; they shall speak with new tongues; They shall take up serpents; and if they drink any deadly thing, it shall not hurt them; they shall lay hands on the sick, and they shall recover. So then after the Lord had spoken unto them, he was received up into heaven, and sat on the right hand of God. And they went forth, and preached everywhere, the Lord working with them, and confirming the word with signs following. Amen.” (Mark 16:15-20).
This was, certainly, consistent with “The Times of Refreshing” as prophesied by “all the holy prophets since the world began” and by Peter in Acts 3:19-21.
Later, as Paul became more fully informed and inspired, he realized the time-frame of “The Acts of the Apostles” was “a foretaste of the good Word of God and the POWERS OF THE WORLD TO COME” (Heb. 6:5). In plainer words, the believers at Thessalonica, as well as Paul at the time, were enduring persecutions and tribulations     (2 Thess. 1:4). The persecutions and tribulations they were experiencing afforded false teachers the opportunity to insist that the Day of the Lord was present.
Paul admonished the saints not to be shaken-up, or troubled “by spirit” (a counterfeit Spirit), or “by word,” as by a false teacher, nor “by a letter as from us” (a forged manuscript). It was understood by Paul that his converts in Thessalonica thought that they were living in the last days just prior to the Parousia of Christ. But, unashamed workmen (2 Tim. 3:15), now in possession of the completed Word, realize there is a problem in the Second Verse of 2 Thessalonians Chapter 2.
If the Bible student accepts that “the Day of Christ” was “at hand,” he makes a grave mistake. The mistake would be to accept, as true, that there is no difference between the Day of Christ and the Day of the Lord. This is a common mistake by those who do not follow the Lord’s commandment for the one great principle of Bible Study—study to
show thyself approved unto God, a workman that needeth not to be ashamed, RIGHTLY DIVIDING THE WORD OF TRUTH (2 Tim. 2:15).
The Greek word for “Christ” is “Christos.” It is Strong’s Number 5547. It is translated as “Christ” 572 times in the New Testament. However, in 2 Thessalonians 2:2, “Christos” is NOT found in the Greek Text—instead, the Greek word is “Kurios” which is “Lord.” It is found 751 times in the New Testament and ONLY ONCE is it translated, ”Christ,” and it is in our text of 2 Thessalonians 2:2. This error causes confusion in properly understanding that the phrase, “Day of Christ,” doesn’t mean the “Day of the Lord.” To reason that since Christ is the Lord, and the Lord is Christ, they mean the same thing.  That is true, but it causes grievous harm to not distinguish the difference when the Spirit is speaking of a period of undefined length, marked by certain characteristics, such as “the day of small things” (Zech 4:10). Or when the Spirit of Truth speaks of the Four Great Days: 1. Man’s Day, 2. Day of Christ, 3. Day of the Lord, 4. Day of God. For a study on the Four Great Days, click the Link below.
The Apostle is assuring the Thessalonians that the Day of the Lord is not present.
“Let no man deceive you by any means: for that day [i.e., the Day Lord] shall not come, except there come a falling away first [the apostasy], and that man of sin be revealed, the son of perdition; Who opposeth [everything that’s called God] and exalteth himself above all that is called God, or that is worshipped; so that he [the Man of Sin] as God sitteth in the Temple of God, shewing himself that he is God. Remember ye not, that, when I was yet with you, I told you these things? And now ye know what withholdeth* [restrains] that he might be revealed in his time” (2 Thess. 2:3-6).
The Day of the Lord shall not come until the apostasy sets in. The apostasy arises after hundreds of years of every living human being directed by and ruled over by the Lord Jesus. He will be the King of kings and Lord of lords during His reign as the ONLY POTENTATE during the Pre-Millennial Kingdom of God. Part of this Jesus Christ Pre-Millennial Government will be that of allowing the governments of the world to see if they can govern themselves as they have learned from the Lord of Heaven and Earth—the Lord Jesus Christ. Mankind proves, again, that he is beyond enjoying a righteous government. A rebellion is the natural out-growth of apostasy.
The Lord’s Day is one of darkness, apostasy, rebellion, and war against the Government of Jesus Christ. The rebellion and war is described in Psalm 2:
Psalm 2:1-3
Why do the nations conspire
and the peoples plot in vain?
2 The kings of the earth take their stand
and the rulers gather together
against the LORD**
and against his Anointed One***.  
3 "Let us break their chains," they say,
"and throw off their fetters."
              *Withholdeth – restrains, holds back, to refrain from allowing.
            ** LORD ─ Yahweh.
          *** Anointed One = Messiah (Jesus Christ).
Copyright© 2014 by Thomas L. Ballinger
Tom Ballinger
1031 Wilson Road
Lancaster, TX 75146
No Subscription Price
We endeavor to put in print and in plainer words Bible Studies which we recommend to students and teachers alike. This is our 45th year of publishing Plainer Words. Plainer Words is emailed to anyone upon their personal request.
Plainer Words Online
Tom L. Ballinger
Plainer Words since 1968
February 11. 2014
The Apostle Paul, when he was known as Saul, received letters from the High Priest, authorizing him to bring followers of Jesus “ bound unto Jerusalem.”
The Lord Jesus Christ appeared to Saul of Tarsus on the Damascus Road—“suddenly
there shined round about him a light from heaven: and he fell to the earth, and heard a voice saying unto him, Saul, Saul, why persecutest thou me? And [Saul] said, Who art thou, Lord? And the Lord said, I am Jesus whom thou persecutest: it is hard for thee to kick against the pricks.And [Saul] trembling and astonished said, Lord, what wilt thou have me to do? And the Lord said unto him, Arise, and go into the city, and it shall be told thee what thou must do” (Acts 9:3-6).
The Lord Jesus instructed Saul to go into the city and meet a man, named Ananias, who will remove the blindness of Saul and care for him.
We see in Acts 9: 9-16 that the Lord Jesus Christ also appeared to a certain disciple of His, in Damascus, by the name of Ananias. The Lord instructed Ananias to go to a house  of a man named Judas, on Straight Street, and ask for one called Saul of Tarsus. He will be praying.
Ananias had heard of this Saul and was hesitant, at first, because he knew the evil he had inflicted upon the saints.  The Lord assured Ananias that this Saul “is a chosen vessel unto Me, to bear My Name before the Gentiles, and kings, and the children of Israel: For I will shew him how great things he must suffer for My Name's sake” (Vs. 15–16).
Saul, also, became known as Paul, although he was a chosen vessel unto Christ, and he was to suffer in his personal life as his recompense for “persecuting the church beyond measure” (Gal. 1:13).
Acts 9:17 – “And Ananias went his way, and entered into the house; and putting his hands on him said, Brother Saul, the Lord, even Jesus, that appeared unto thee in the way as thou camest, hath sent me, that thou mightest receive thy sight, and be filled with the Holy Ghost. 18 And immediately there fell from his eyes as it had been scales: and he received sight forthwith, and arose, and was baptized. 19 And when he had received meat, he was strengthened. Then was Saul certain days with the disciples which were at Damascus.”
Saul/Paul’s First Pentecostal Address
We learn the following from Acts 9:20; in plainer words, “And straightway in the synagogues, was he (Paul) proclaiming Jesus, that He is the Son of God.” Paul’s proclamations were his first preaching as Christ’s Chosen Vessel. In keeping with the Pentecostal Dispensational protocol, persecution arose—as Paul continued to confound the Damascan Jews – they took counsel to kill him (Acts 9:23). He was always careful to preach that if his Gospel was believed, persecution and tribulation would follow those who believed.
Because of the persecution which the believers in Thessalonica were undergoing, many had been falsely led to believe that it was the persecution Paul had told them about at his first visit. When he established the Ecclesia at Thessalonica during his first trip (Acts 17:1-9), he answered some questions they had concerning “the Day of the LORD.” As Paul’s manner was, during his travels, he went into the local Synagogue of the Jews. And, “he reasoned with them out of the Scriptures, opening and alleging that Christ must needs [to] have suffered, and risen from the dead,…whom I preach unto you is Christ” (Acts 17:1-3).
During his three Sabbaths of reasoning with them, he went over the Old Testament Scriptures in detail, showing them the prophecies of how believers are to suffer intense persecution, even death, prior to the Parousia of Christ. The prophets had a great deal to say in their warnings of the Great Tribulation; even the Lord Jesus told His Apostles concerning the persecution that will arise during the “beginning of Sorrows” (Matt. 24:9). He also stressed, “For then shall be great tribulation, such as was not since the beginning of the world to this time, no, nor ever shall be” (Matt. 24:21). The Lord said in Matthew 24 Verse 15, “When ye therefore shall see the abomination of desolation, spoken of by Daniel the prophet, stand in the holy place (whoso readeth, let him understand:),” and  “then shall be great tribulation” (Dan. 9:27. 11:31).
However, it should be recalled that tribulation, persecution, and intense suffering was, also, to be associated with the Gospel of the Pre-Millennial Kingdom. Yes indeed, for believers and Paul, the roads were rough in Macedonia. The facts, as recorded during the Acts Period, certainly showed that persecution and tribulation was part of anyone’s expectation, i.e., to enter the Pre-Millennial Kingdom—Paul confirmed this to the believers. When he and Barnabas traveled the rough roads of Cappadocia, Phrygia, Cilicia and Lycia, they left Derbe and returned, again, to Lystra, Iconium, and Antioch. They confirmed “the souls of the disciples, and exhorted them to continue in the faith, and that WE MUST THROUGH MUCH TRIBULATION ENTER INTO THE [PRE-MILLENNIAL] KINGDOM OF GOD” (Acts 14:22).
Paul’s question to the Thessalonicans in 2 Thessalonians 2:5 was, “Remember, ye not, that when I was with yet you. I told you these things?” I am sure you remember Paul saying;
“That no man should be moved by these afflictions: for yourselves know that we are appointed thereunto. For verily, when we were with you, we told you before that we should suffer tribulation; even as it came to pass, and ye know” (1 Thess.3:3-4).
The persecution which believers were undergoing was not that of the beginning of the Day-of-the-LORD-persecution.
These turbulent times were woven into the fabric of the Acts Period Gospel—which included both Gospels; the Gospel of the Uncircumcision and the Circumcision. The Apostle Paul taught that the trials they were experiencing were worthy to be compared to the glory that will be theirs at the manifestation of The Day of Christ.                         
“The Spirit itself beareth witness with our spirit, that we are the children of God: And if children, then heirs; heirs of  God, and joint-heirs with Christ; if so be that we suffer with Him, that we may be also glorified together. For I reckon that the sufferings of this present time are not worthy to be compared with the glory which shall be revealed in us” (Rom. 16-18).
At Thessalonica, some of them confused the “Pre-Entrance-Tribulation” with that of the Tribulation which is to be associated with the “Consummation of the Pre-Millennial Kingdom.” Their confusion was addressed by the Apostle, and he, also, adds another feature to the Daniel-Prophesy—the Anti-Christ:
“Let no man deceive you by any means: for that day [Day of the LORD] shall not come, except there come a falling away first, and that MAN OF SIN be revealed, the son of perdition.  Who opposeth and exalteth himself above all that is called God, or that is worshipped; so that he as God sitteth in the temple of God, shewing himself that he is God” (Thess.2:3-4).
A despicable misuse of the Temple of the Lord during a time of great trouble is an event foretold by the prophet Daniel.
These two verses (2 Thess. 2:3-4) are accurate-word pictures of a God-Inspired prophesy. It is a description of a Great Tribulation occurrence—“the abomination of desolation” (Matt. 24:15, Dan. 9:27 and 11:31). Many Christians, over the years, have asked, “Will the Temple Complex be built during The Day of Christ—to wit, The Pre-Millennial Kingdom of God.  In fact, the Temple Complex will be constructed through the funding which the Gentile nations shall provide (Isa. 60:2-10). An amazing truth is that, in resurrection, Cyrus will issue a proclamation for the nations to build Jerusalem and the Temple. During the early days of the Day of Christ, Cyrus is raised from the dead. And, he pronounces the following concerning the foundation and the construction of the Temple.
“That saith of Cyrus, He is my shepherd, and shall perform all my pleasure: even saying to Jerusalem, Thou shalt be built; and to the temple, Thy foundation shall be laid”
(Isa. 44:28).
Cyrus will be one of the five Monarchs who reign at the beginning of the Day of Christ. Gentile Monarchs, including Nebuchanezzar and Cyrus, will reign over a world-wide Kingdom while Israel is being reconstituted.
The Divine Clock begins the count-down with Daniel’s Seventy Weeks (490 years) with the pronouncement Cyrus makes. Thus, informing us that the Day of Jesus Christ will last at least 490 years plus the years of the reign beginning with the five Monarchs while Christ is establishing His Pre-Millennial Kingdom of Israel.
Hundreds of years of world-wide peace will be enjoyed. Over time, the Lord Jesus begins to relax His restraints against all manner of evil doing. Notice a few highlighted words in what follows:
“Let no man deceive you by any means: for that Day [i.e., Day of the LORD] shall not come, except there come a falling away first [apostasy and rebellion], and that man of sin be revealed, the son of perdition; Who opposeth and exalteth himself above all that is called God, or that is worshipped; so that he as God sitteth in the Temple of God, shewing himself that he is God. Remember ye not, that, when I was yet with you, I told you these things? And now ye know what withholdeth that he might be revealed in his time. For the mystery of iniquity doth already work: only he who now letteth will let, until he be taken out of the way” (2 Thess. 2:3-7).
Paul warned the believers to whom this epistle was written—not to be deceived, or fooled in any way. There will be a Force at work, holding back that Day [of the LORD]. In plainer words, the Force, also, restrains the “man of sin” from revealing himself as the “son of perdition;” there is to be a proper time for “the revealing.” Many well-known Church Fathers in ancient times (First, Second, and Third Centuries) wrote and taught that “the Force” was Caesar or the Roman Empire. They were so wicked that Satan wasn’t able to unleash the “son of perdition” until Caesar was out of the way. They believed, as do most modern-day Bible teachers, that the 490 year Era began with the Crucifixion of Christ. After the Roman Empire collapsed, new leaders found other Emperors and Empires to be the restraining Force.
I purposely used the word, “Force,” not in any way alluding to the “Star Wars” movie. The Holy Spirit was the restraining Force throughout the Seventy Weeks of Daniel. The Spirit the Bible refers to as the “Holy Spirit” is not another Person—God the Holy Spirit; to go along with “God the Father,” and “God the Son.” We should not be confused. God is not three Persons—“God is a Spirit” (John 4:24), literally, “God a Spirit.”
The Holy Spirit is the Spirit of God, as in Genesis 1:1-2;
“And the earth was without form, and void; and darkness was upon the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters. And God [His Spirit] said, Let there be light: and there was light.”
Twenty-one times in the Old Testament, the “Spirit of the LORD” is used.  “LORD” is the translation of the Hebrew “Yahweh”means ,“(the) self-Existent or Eternal; Jehovah, Jewish national name of God: (Strong’s # 3068).” The Spirit of God is the same as the Spirit of the LORD.  Twelve times in the New Testament, the “Spirit of God” is used.  The Spirit of God and God are the same Person. The context determines when one is used. ( * )
“That Day,” in 2 Thessalonians 2:3, was a reference to the Day of the LORD. That Day cannot come until the man of sin is revealed. He will not be revealed until the proper, or appointed time. Along with this Truth, I’m sure it is understood by our readers that the Coming (Parousia) of the Lord Jesus Christ and His gathering together of the saints cannot take place UNTIL THERE IS A TEMPLE. Jerusalem has been without the Temple Complex since 70 A.D.  The Temple that will be on the scene will be the one Cyrus called for in Isaiah 44:28.  It will be destroyed by Antichrist and his armies. The City of God will also be leveled. Antichrist refurbishes the Temple after Jerusalem is captured and ravaged.
The word for “withholdeth” is “katéchon,” Strong’s # 2722 which means, “he who allows something, obstructs something, hinders something, or interferes with something. Verse 6, “And NOW ye know what withholdeth [restrains, holds him back].”
The ISBE says, “ABOMINATION OF DESOLATION - The Hebrew root for abomination is shaqats, "to be filthy," "to loathe," "to abhor," from which is derived shiqquts, "filthy," especially "idolatrous." This word is used to describe specific forms of idolatrous worship that were specially abhorrent, as of the Ammonites (1 Kings 11:5,7); of the Moabites (1 Kings 11:7; 2 Kings 23:13). When Daniel undertook to specify an abomination so surpassingly disgusting to the sense of morality and decency, and so aggressive against everything that was godly as to drive all from its presence and leave its abode desolate, he chose this as the strongest among the several synonyms, adding the qualification "that maketh desolate" (Dan 11:31; 12:11).”
The “abomination of desolation” is the erection of symbols of the Asherah (monuments of the human phallus) throughout the sanctuary and on its battlements; thereby, desecrating it. This, and the taking away of the daily sacrifice, happens in the middle of the last week of Daniel’s Seventy Weeks (See 8:11-12, 9:27, and 12:11). From this point, forward, the king of the North (Antichrist) is energized by Satan.
The “beginning of sorrows” (Matt. 24:8) clearly indicates that the Restrainer (the Spirit of God) begins to gradually withdraw His restraints. This takes place sometime before the “seventieth week” of Daniel commences. So, here you have a world living in a perfect environment, under a just Government, and experiencing long life, and some are still not content. Proving, again; the heart of man is desperately wicked.
“The heart is deceitful above all things, and desperately wicked: who can know it?”    (Jer. 17:9).
Thus, the “mystery of iniquity” is set in motion (2 Thess. 2:7). The main center of this activity will be centered in the Holy City, the City of God. Many of the Kingdom’s disciples will be martyred. They will become hated by many nations, and many become offended and will betray one another. False prophets will arise and will deceive many. Iniquity will abound, and the resurrected Peter, James, John, and Andrew will be killed by the forces of Anti-Christ (Matt. 24:9-12). The Lawless one makes a covenant with the apostate Jews in the transformed city; then, after three-and-a-half years, he causes the sacrifice and oblation to cease, and he shall erect “abominations” (phallus statues) all around the Temple (Dan. 9:27). He exalts himself above all that is called God, or that is worshipped, and he will sit in the Temple of God declaring that he, himself, is God        (2 Thess. 2:4).
Then, the Lord Jesus Christ destroys him with the brightness of His Parousia, to wit, the 2nd Coming (2 Thess. 2:8). This will be the consummation of the Pre-Millennial Kingdom age.
            ( * ) There are Nine Studies on that cover, in detail, the fact that God is Spirit. At times, God has manifested Himself as His Son, and other times, as His Spirit. These are Spiritual facts most Christians are unaware of. They follow the beliefs of the “church fathers;” that being that God is actually Three Persons, the so-called great Three-In-One. In plainer words, three Gods in ONE. The Bible says there is only ONE GOD.  See “No God Beside Me”  
Copyright© 2014 by Thomas L. Ballinger
Tom Ballinger
1031 Wilson Road
Lancaster, TX 75146
No Subscription Price
We endeavor to put in print and in plainer words Bible Studies which we recommend to students and teachers alike. This is our 45th year of publishing Plainer Words. Plainer Words is emailed to anyone upon their personal request.